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lundi 21 novembre 2016

Vietnam needs to demonstrate biomass co-firing in coal power plants

Vietnam's Renewable Energy Development Strategy (REDS) sets ambitious goals for developing renewable energy (RE). There are four pillars: mini-hydro, solar, wind, and biomass. We argue that to reach the biomass energy goals, Vietnam should build an industrial demonstrator of biomass co-firing in a coal power plant, as soon as possible.

The official plans give two targets for biomass share in total power generation. One comes from PDP VII revised (18/3/2016), the other one from the RE Development Strategy (Decision 2068/QĐ-TTg on 25/11/2015) :

Decision 2068 PDP VII revised
Year 2020 2030 2020 2030
Biomass share in total power generated 3% 6.3% 1% 2.1%
Power generated from biomass 7.8 TWh 37 TWh 2.4-2.5 TWh 10.6-11.7 TWh

Considering the lower target, according to our estimates which assume a capacity factor of a dedicated biomass power plant at fifty percent, the installed capacity of biomass-based power generation should be 570 MW in 2020, increasing to 2.5 GW in 2030.

  • Presently, biomass power is generated in sugar mills, with a total capacity of 150 MW.
  • A first biomass power plant is Vietnam is being built with a capacity of 10 MW.
  • According to PDP VII revised, four biomass power plants should operate by 2020, for a 265 MW capacity (60 MW KCP, 55 MW An Khe 1, 55 MW An Khe 2, 125 MW Lee&Man.)

The current and planned biomass power plants capacities add up to 425 MW. There is a gap of about 150 MW of biomass power capacity in 2020, that is 25 % of the total capacity.

Co-firing 5% biomass in three large 1 GW coal power plants would fill this gap.

The thermal energy needed to produce 2.5 TWh by biomass is 8.3 TWh (30 PJ), given the conversion efficiency at 30%. Assumed the heat value of biomass at 15 MJ/kg then the amount of biomass required will be 2 Mt. The biomass quantity to fill the 25 % gap is 0.5 Mt.

We estimate that the production capacity of biomass pellets in Vietnam is 2-3 Mt/yr. In 2015, Vietnam exported 1 Mt of pellet to Korea for co-firing in coal power plants. Today’s domestic overcapacity for biomass pellets production led many shops to close. It is more than enough to co-fire three large coal power plants in 2020 at a 5 % mix ratio.

Recently, the Government has been working on a Roadmap to detail the implementation plan of the REDS. Most roadmap activities are for legal framework. There are regulations on supporting mechanisms for grid-connected PV project, waste to power projects, development plan for bioenergy projects, establishment of Sustainable Energy Development Fund, and a Renewable Portfolio Standard. Detailed regulation on the ratio of biomass co-fired in coal power plant will be available by 2022. A Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) is to be approved by 2018. Three percent of energy generated from units above 1 GW capacity should come from renewable sources.

The Government's roadmap is technology-neutral, and RPS leave it to the industry to choose the least cost-way to comply. RPS Korea and Japan have led utilities to choose co-firing pellets. The story could play again in Vietnam.

We conclude that to prepare for the use of co-firing biomass in large coal power plants in three years, the industry should build a pilot co-firing demonstration project now. In addition to demonstrating the engineering and operational aspects, the pilot will answer critical social, economic and environmental questions related to long term biomass supply contracts, external effects on health, air quality, social impact and domestic trade balance effects.

Dr. Minh Ha-Duong, Dr. Nguyen Trinh Hoang Anh, Msc. Truong An Ha

lundi 14 novembre 2016

From Con Dao to Phu Quy: Vietnamese islands progress towards renewable off-grid power

Guest post by Emmeline Bergeon

In Con Dao, 2016 has been successful. Two projects have been implemented in order to supply this off-grid island: VND2 trillion were invested in the first, in order to develop power generation and a transmission grid. Added to this, the current projects of Solar and Wind power plants for a total of VND645 billion. The island is on the way to reach energetic autonomy with cleaner and cheaper power, and being a leader of off-grid power supply. Phu Quy, Bach Long Vi and Cu Lao Cham are on a similar path.

Small islands in Vietnam very often face a lack of security in energy supply. Many communities are not connected to the national grid, which means that they face difficulties accessing a stable and cheap energy. They have to find alternatives which are frequently unsustainable and expensive (particularly the use of individual diesel generators).

In order to understand the challenges and opportunities of renewable energy in off-grid communities in Vietnam, SNV (a non-profit international development organisation) carried out a study in the framework of the USAID Vietnam Clean Energy Program and delivered a report in January 2014. In this report, they explore the situation in 2014 and the completed, current and future development programs. The aim of these programs is to permit the development of these islands, for which energy supply is a key. Among others, six islands areas were studied: Bach Long Vi, Phu Quy, Cu Lao Cham, Con Dao, Ninh Tan hamlet and Con Co. This article aims to examine the present situation on these islands, in order to update the projects mentioned in SNV report.

introducing_electricity_via_underground_cable_sea_cu_lao_cham_tan_hiep.jpg

Introduction of electricity in Cu Lao Cham Island via underground cable in the sea

In 2014, several projects were reported on these islands, but not all of them completed their term. For example on Ninh Tan hamlet the project intended in 2012 to provide clean energy to small islands of Van Ninh district in the near future. Further information is not available for the public for this project. Con Co Island's project led in 2012 to make the new established district island a pilot area for off-grid site study (decision 1936/QD-UBND) seems to have collapsed: according to the SNV final report “the second field visit planned […] has been delayed until further notice”.

However, since 2014, the situation moved forward for some of those islands. In Bach Long Vi, it is estimated a large growth of energy demand between 2014-2020, a project started in January 2016 by Hai Phong Power Company (VND 30 billion invested) to upgrade and enhance a 630kVA generator and rehabilite the diesel power station. It also aims to replace the current power metering system (which does not meet the current demand for electricity: power supply is dependent on three generators generating with capacity of 1.000kVA) by a mixed power source metering system by 2017. According to the company, it will carry out the construction and installation of four wind turbines (capacity of 250 kVA per turbine), solars panels (total capacity of 500 kWp), two diesel generators (total capacity of 2 MVA), and a system of energy storage with power usage regulations (capacity of storage: 7.48MWh). Another VND 148 billion should be invested to achieve this project, and it could be extended forward to provide the whole island with stable power, including areas that can’t be reached by the national grid.

phu_quy_wind_plant_sggp.jpg

Phu Quy wind plant inaugurated on January 24 2015

Phu Quy Island also saw further development with the implementation of one of the three commercial wind power plants in Vietnam, with a capacity of 6MW. This was part of a project for boosting electricity supply on this island, with an investment of EVN SPC (Electricity of Vietnam, Southern Power Corporation) of VND 10 billion. Also, two more diesel generators, a diesel tank and a diesel pipeline from Phu Quy Port to the power plant were fitted. This has balanced the power prices to equal the national standard.

Very recently, in September 2016, in the touristic island Cu Lao Cham, the 630 households of Tan Hiep commune were connected to the national grid, a project started in January 2016. The electricity is provided by a hybrid system of photovoltaic power (28kW) and diesel (60kW), alongside a project of EAB Company using a hybrid of wind and diesel (1kW). Depending on the success of the project, Vietnam Electricity aims to continue trying to connect the whole island to the national grid, in order to provide cheaper electricity and permit the development of the area.

Last but not least, Con Dao, a tourist island of Ba Ria – Vung Tao province has seen the births of two projects, in March and October 2016, due to a predicted increase of 23.4% in energy demand per year from 2015-2020. With a funding of VND 2 trillion, the first project's aim is to supply the increase in demand using power generation and a transmission grid. This is not the first project of its kind on the island; the Con Dao Wind Power Plant project (capacity of 4MW) and a Solar Power Plant project (capacity of 4MW) are in development, for a total of VND645 billion. In October, cooperation began between Duc Long Gia Group and German group Merica with a pilot project to supply power on the island, and it is expected to be expanded to the whole country if it is successful.

Solar panels in Con Dao Island

Solar panels are checked at a solar power plant on Con Dao Island

Despite the collapse of two projects, four have achieved what they set out to do. Islands in Vietnam could be laboratories to experiment alternatives in power supply. Not all of the projects realized are completely sustainable, as diesel oil is still part of the hybrid systems, and the main material for power generation. But these projects show that Vietnam are becoming more experimental with renewable energy, such as wind or solar. Off-grids territories in Vietnam could be the foundations to lead successful and innovative pilot projects and extend them to the whole country.

vendredi 28 octobre 2016

L'éolien au Vietnam, part 2: le décollage

In that previous post, I was wondering if wind power was about to take off in Vietnam. One and a half years later, the wind farms map shows four projects in operation and five in construction:

Tuy Phong

Tuy Phong wind park

The Tuy Phong onshore wind park in the Binh Thuan province was the first. It has twenty 1.5 MW turbines (Fuhrlander FL MD/77) from Germany). The Vietnamese Renewable Energy Joint Stock Company (REVN) completed the project in 2012. Plans for sixty additional machines seem to be on hold, maybe waiting for better economics.

Phu Quy

Three wind turbines in Phu Quy island(Source: PV Power)

A 6 MW onshore wind-diesel hybrid system, on the Phu Quy island, Binh Thuan province. The 3 * 2MW Vestas V80 turbines were inaugurated in 2014. The Investor PV Power RE (PetroVinam). I would be curious to see the economics of the project: the electricity retail price on the island is higher than on the continent and higher than the official feed-in tariff of 7.8 cent per kWh.

Bac Lieu

Bac Lieu wind farm(source)

The Bac Lieu project in the south west has a 99.2 MW capacity, with sixty two 1.6MW General Electric turbines. They are installed "near-shore". This means in the tidal flats, the area that is sometimes uncovered by the sea. There are better wind and less neighboors, but the civil engineering for windmill foundations in 2 to 3 meters of sand and mud is harder. Foundations cost 1 million USD apiece. Phase 1 was 10 turbines. As a first-of-a-kind project in Vietnam, it took 2 years to install, cost 2.9 million USD/MW, efficiency 25%. Phase 2 was 52 turbines. Took another 2 years, cost 2.4 million USD/MW; efficiency 30%. This project started operation in 2016. As a near-shore project, it benefits from a higher feed in tariff of 9.8 cent / kWh. It illustrates the importance of learning by doing when starting a new industry.

Phu Lac

Phu Lac windpark substation(Source VoV)

The Windpark Phu Lac project, also in Binh Thuan province, has 12 Vestas turbines with a combined capacity of 24 megawatts (MW), for a cost of VND1 trillion (US$46 million), of which 85 per cent comes from the German Bank for Reconstruction and Development (KFW). Groundbreaking started in July 2015. It was connected in September 2016.

Economics

The official FiT at 7.8 cent / kWh was computed on the "avoided cost plus externality" basis. EVN agreed that the marginal cost of producing electricity was 6.8 cent/kWh (this is using imported coal), so substituting for wind at that price is theoretically budget-neutral for EVN. A higher level of Feed-in Tariff, about 11.2 cent/kWh, is proposed by GiZ and producers, but many questions remain. The government agreed to use the VN Environmental Protection Fund for the 1 cent/kWh difference in the current FIt, but that fund was supposed to be fed by a percentage of CDM, which does not exist anymore. The Prime Minister has to approves a higher FiT, and ultimately decide who is going to pay.

In my opinion, high FITs are good for kickstarting the sector but not sustainable. Wind power associations claim that their generation costs are competitive, so the only rationale for preferential treatment is to support the initial demonstration projects. Today the costs are higher in Vietnam because the economies of scale have not been realized: infrastructure to manufacture, transport, build, operate and service wind farms is still weak in Vietnam. The FiT should be a program, not a policy, with limits to protect the state budget if it succeed too much. There are many instruments to support the industry.

Conclusion

To sum up, wind power in Vietnam is taking off. Today there are 3 * 2MW + 20 * 1,5 MW + 62 * 1.6 MW that is 6 + 30 + 99 = 135 MW capacity. This is about as much as Thailand, but the wind potential is much better in Vietnam, even if the Feed In Tariff is much lower. Compared to my previous report 18 months ago, opening Bac Lieu phase 2 increased the national capacity by 240%. I am optimistic that in 18 months, the installed capacity will have at least doubled again, because here is over 500MW of projects likely to occur before 2020:

  • In Bac Lieu, the Cong Ly company operating the farm plans to add up 71 turbines of 2MW to the farm, that is a 142MW extension.
  • In Khai Long-Ca Mau, the same company started to build another 100MW of near shore capacity at the southern tip of the country, with plans for 300MW in total.
  • In Tra Vinh, a Korean led project started in February this year to build twenty four 2 MW turbines, with plans to double the capacity to 48MW in phase 2.
  • In Mui Dinh, the groundbreaking ceremony to install sixteen turbines for 37MW was held in September last month.

References: This post is inspired by two presentations I attended at the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) workshop on best practices for wind development in the APEC region. With special thanks to Mrs. Nguyen Quoc Khanh and Vu Quang Dang. The high-level expert workshop was held in Hanoi, October 2016. Its report might be made available at APEC Energy Working Group publications page.

jeudi 29 septembre 2016

Table-ronde: Le Vietnam peut – il atteindre l’objectif d’utiliser 100% d’énergies renouvelables à l’horizon 2050 ? Samedi 1/10/2016, 14h - 16h à l'Institut Français.

Annonce conférence l'Espace

Nous avons le plaisir de vous inviter à la table ronde samedi 1/10/2016 après midi (14h-16h) à l'auditorium de l’Espace, Institut Français, Hanoi, sur le thème "Le Vietnam peut–il atteindre l’objectif d’utiliser 100% d’énergies renouvelables à l’horizon 2050 ?". En vietnamien. Voir la page FB de la table ronde.

samedi 17 septembre 2016

"Energy Plus House" training course held at USTH Energy Department

Energy Plus House course, 2916-09-11

Dr. Eng. Dirk Schwede, top left, with the class of his training course "Energy Plus House" held on 10th and 11th 2016 at USTH. This class was hosted by the USTH Energy Department, and organized as a collaboration with energydesign, Envidatec and Ministry of Industry and Trade (MOIT) of Vietnam.

lundi 5 septembre 2016

USTH sponsor of the SEA Makerthon 2016

Makerthon Hanoi 2016

USTH faculty, staff and student had the pleasure to support the SEA Makerthon Hanoi 2016. We contributed to the organization under the leadership of Fablab Hanoi, and I had the personal pleasure to give the first prize to the winning team "Seven color rabbits" for their shared food project. We wish good luck to them at the grand finale in Singapore next month, organized by the South East Asia Makerspace Network (SEAMNET).

lundi 22 août 2016

Website review: MOIT/GIZ Energy Support Programme

The galaxy of websites on clean energy in Vietnam has a new star: the MOIT/GIZ Energy Support Programme pages at www.gizenergy.org.vn.

Launched in August 2016, this site in both Vietnamese and English provides information on how the collaboration between Germany's GIZ and Vietnam's Ministry of Industry and Trade (MOIT) enhance the development of Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE) in Viet Nam. It is full of gems such as the business directory which students looking for internships should find usefull, their team directory which I will find usefull before meetings, a resource center with their publications -- I would start any research on wind power in Vietnam here. I don't know if the online map of renewable energy projects in Vietnam at http://gizenergy.org.vn/en/re-projects-vietnam feels more depressing or more encouraging at the moment, but if they groom it regularly it promises to be a major information sources for the public, the media and the experts alike. Here is a preview:

Source: www.gizenergy.org.vn.

samedi 25 juin 2016

Empowering Youth with Live and Learn at the CleanED lab

Youth development camp at USTH, June 2016

Hosting the Live and Learn day on sustainable energy on June 25th, 2016. Nothing beats seeing two busfull of the brightests high-school students from various provinces of Vietnam at our labs for a full day of science, technology and environment activities. These guys were totally ready to understand and discuss the IPCC WG3 talk ! Event supported by the U.S. Embassy in Hanoi.

mardi 26 avril 2016

Sujet de thèse sur la bioénergie - date limite 3 mai

CleanED, USTH et le Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Energies de Demain, Université de Paris 7, recherchent un candidat pour une thèse sur la bioénergie intitulée: Micro-organism motility and transport phenomena in suspensions of particles with molecular driving force for production of biofuels- a physico-biological study Le sujet est éligible à concourir au financement de l'Ecole Doctorale de Physique de Paris Ile de France, candidature à déposer avant le 3 mai sur le site de l'EDPIF.

jeudi 31 mars 2016

Vietnam revises its Power Development Plan: much greener

Post written by Nguyen Trinh Hoang Anh, 2016-03-30. Edited and published by MHD.

On 18th March 2016, the Government of Vietnam approved the adjustments of 7th Vietnam Power Development Planning in the period 2011 - 2020 with an outlook up to 2030 [1]. This official decision aims to ensure the national energy security and meet the socio-economic development objectives of the country with an average GDP growth of about 7.0% during the period. This economic growth rate is projected 1.5% lower than in the 7th Power Development Plan of Vietnam (PDP7) issued in 2011 [2].

The lower projections of economic growth in Vietnam, reduce the demand for total electricity generation by about 20% and 18% by 2020 and 2030, respectively. As consequence, the total power installed capacity of Vietnam in the adjustment would reach only 265 GW by 2020 and 572 GW by 2030 as compared to 330 GW and 695 GW in the original PDP7. Table 1 presents more changes in the electricity mix of Vietnam in the updated version of the PDP7.

Power capacity and electricity generation by 2020 and 2030 in the 7th Power Development Plan (PDP7, 2011) and the adjustment (PDP7-A, 2016)
2020 2030
PDP7 PDP7-A PDP7 PDP7-A
Total generation TWh 330 265 695 572
Total capacity GW 75 60 146.8 129.5
Hydro (except small) GW 19 18 23 22
Coal GW 36 26 76 55
Natural gas GW 12 9 17 19
Renewables GW 4 6 14 27
Nuclear GW 1 0 10 4.6
Import GW 2.3 1.4 7.2 1.6

Compared to the previous version of the plan, this is a huge step forward by the Vietnamese Government towards climate change mitigation policies. This is not an European-style energy transition: fossil fuel-based technologies still heavily dominate the internal energy industry. However, it does meet the ambitious CO2 reduction objectives of Vietnam at the COP 21. Cuts of fossil fuel consumption are deep compared to the baseline. Coal consumption reduction of nearly 30%, changing from 76GW to 55GW, by 2030.

The PDP7-A still develops nuclear power plants to ensure stable power supply in the future but the plants will not put into operation before 2028. By 2030, the nuclear power capacity could reach 4.6 GW with its electricity generation of 32.5 TWh per year, accounting for 5.7% of total generation mix.

Changes in renewable power capacity
2020 2030
PDP7 PDP7-A PDP7 PDP7-A
Medium and large Hydro GW 17.4 20.4 25.4
Pumped storage hydro GW 1.8 1.2 5.4 2.4
Wind GW 1.0 0.8 6.2 6.0
Biomass 0.5 GW 2.7 TWh 2.0 GW 12.0 TWh
Solar GW 0.85 12

Table 2 presents differences between power capacities from each type of renewable energy in PDP7 and PDP7-A. Hydropower sources, including pump-storage hydropower plants, remain the largest share in the total renewable power capacity and slightly increase to 25.4 GW in PDP7-A.

Thank to the recent solar energy maps of Vietnam, there is a big move in development of power sources from solar energy, including the concentrating stations on the ground and scattering sets on the building roofs, in the PDP7-A, raising the total capacity of the solar power projects from the current negligible level to about 850 MW, with a power generation rate about 0.5% of total generation mix by 2020, 4 GW with – 1.6% by 2025 and 12 GW with – 3.3% by 2030. Note that in the PDP7, solar power was not given any quantitative projection.

In contrast, wind power, unfortunately, has not received any more attention in PDP7-A although the government has been issued feed-in-tariffs for wind electricity generation. The wind power capacity in PDP7-A would even be lower than its previous projection in PDP7.

Although the PDP7-A presents large decreases in fossil fuel consumption from now to 2030 for electricity generation, the government has not set any emission targets for the electricity sector. The most notable points in the PDP7-A are: (1) deep cut of coal consumption in the power sector due to lower projection of electricity demand, and (2) excluding hydropower, solar power is expected to be the most important renewable resource for electricity generation in Vietnam with its total capacity by 2030 is about 12 GW.

In summary, we believe that this adjustment represents a significant step towards a sustainable energy sector in Vietnam, and refer to [4] for more discussion of a low carbon future for the power sector.

References:

  1. The Government of Vietnam, The adjustments of 7th Vietnam Power Development Planning, 2016
  2. The Government of Vietnam, The 7th Power Development Plan of Vietnam, 2011.
  3. Vietnam Energy, Adjusting Vietnam National Power Development Planning, 2016.
  4. Hoang Anh Nguyen Trinh, Minh Ha-Duong. Low Carbon Scenario for the Power Sector of Vietnam: Externality and Comparison Approach. GMSARN International Journal, 2016, 9 (4), pp.137-146. hal-01277074

lundi 28 décembre 2015

“Investing in Clean Energy in Vietnam after COP 21″ conference taked place from 16-18 December 2015

CleanED lab is organizing “Investing in Clean Energy in Vietnam after COP 21” from December 16-18, with the support from the French Embassy in Vietnam and USTH.


Mr. Medhi Salim, Attaché of Science and Higher Education of French Embassy in Vietnam and Prof. Patrick Boiron, Rector of USTH both join the seminar, and Prof. Patrick Boiron gives the opening speech.


In the public session of the seminar in the afternoon of December 16, the speakers, namely Prof. Franck Lecocq – IPCC Lead Author, economic and sustainable development council of the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy; Mr. Gilles Beau, Senior Wind Engineer at The Blue Circle, a renewable energy developer and investor in Vietnam; Trịnh Bích Ngọc, a staff at USTH, Vietnamese ambassador at “International training workshop on climate change and sustainable development” in Gabon; and Mr. Binh Vuong, development manager at ChangE, a local climate change NGO, make their presentations and have open discussions with the audience on the topics of common interest.


The seminar was organised at L’Espace, 24 Tràng Tiền, Hanoi, and continued until December 18 afternoon./.

mardi 27 octobre 2015

Fablab Hanoi meetup at USTH

The "Fablab Hanoi meetup at USTH" was organized on Saturday, Oct 21, 2015. 15 people from Fablab Hanoi, CleanED lab at USTH and USTH student were participated in this event.

The meeting was broken up into 2 sessions: introduction on Fablab (what is Fablab, roadmap to set up Fablab at USTH, who can get benefit...) and solar boat building activity.

Fablabs, stand for Fabrication Laboratory, are available as a community resource, offering open access for individuals as well as scheduled access for programs. They provide operational, educational, technical, financial, and logistical assistance beyond what's available within one lab.


Fablab at USTH could first be a technology club for students who love technology to learn about it as well as to utilise the facilities at the lab to startup their own projects.

jeudi 8 octobre 2015

Call for papers : Clean energy in Vietnam after COP21

There is a mounting tension between Vietnamese and international energy/climate policies. For example, Vietnam plans to build mostly coal power plants to increase its electricity generation capacity, while many developed countries are leaving this technology behind. The COP21 is an opportunity for clean energy in Vietnam, which has plenty of untapped natural ressources. Is Vietnam at the eve of a green rush ?
The CleanED lab has been created one year ago to contribute to the clean development of the energy sector in Vietnam. We are honored to invite our colleagues to share and discuss new results on clean energy technologies, ressources and policies, with a special interest to Vietnam in the post ­COP21 context.

The workshop is open to disciplinary or interdisciplinary papers drawing from the Electrical Engineering, Process Engineering, Public Policy, Technology Assessment, Economics, Social Psychology and other areas of Science and Technology. Attendance is free, by registration, and a limited number of grants is available for selected speakers from Vietnam or abroad.

Calendar

October 5th : first announcement for call for papers
October 26th : abstract submission deadline
November 2nd : acceptance
December 16th : pre­event public conference “Investing in Clean Energy in Vietnam after COP21” at the French Institute
December 17th and 18th : academic workshop

The call for papers in pdf format is enclosed Callforpapers_Workshop_CleanED_December.pdf.

The CleanED lab would like to thank the French Embassy which has financed this project. For more information, please click here on workshop's website.

 

mardi 29 septembre 2015

Intended Nationally Determined Contribution INDC of Viet Nam submitted

To prepare for the COP 21 (Paris, December 2015), Vietnam has just submitted the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) report to UNFCCC today 29 septembre 2015. Below are some highlights:
Business-As-Usual scenario:
The BAU starts from 2010 (the latest year of the national GHG inventory) and includes the energy, agriculture, waste and LULUCF (Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry) sectors.
GHG emissions in 2010: 246.8 million tCO2e
Projections for 2020 and 2030 (not included industrial processes):
- 2020: 474.1 million tCO2e
- 2030: 787.4 million tCO2e
Unconditional contributions: With domestic resources, by 2030 Viet Nam will reduce GHG emissions by 8% compared to BAU, in which:
- Emission intensity per unit of GDP will be reduced by 20% compared to the 2010 levels;
- Forest cover will increase to the level of 45%.
Conditional contributions: The above-mentioned 8% contribution could be increased to 25% if international support is received through bilateral and multilateral cooperation, as well as through the implementation of new mechanisms under the Global Climate Agreement, in which emission intensity per unit of GDP will be reduced by 30% compared to 2010 levels.
A roadmap with methods to implement GHG mitigation measures to achieve Viet Nam’s INDC will be issued.
For more information, please find the report in attached VIETNAM_S_INDCs.pdf . For more INDCs reports from other countries, please click HERE.

jeudi 30 juillet 2015

Le gouvernement du Vietnam propose 230 bourses de thèse en France

Le programme 911 du gouvernement vietnamien propose cette année 230 bourses de thèse en France, dont 40 pour la formation des futurs enseignants-chercheurs de l’USTH. Ces bourses sont ouvertes aux M2 vietnamiens de tous les établissements (pas seulement USTH et VAST), avec une clause de retour à l'issue de la Thèse.

  • Les sujets de thèse hors thématiques USTH sont à saisir directement sur le site de campus-france.
  • Les sujets de thèse USTH sont à retourner au Consortium USTH avant le 14 septembre. Formulaire disponible sur simple demande auprès du département concerné.

Démarrer une thèse nécessite de coordonner i. encadrant, ii. sujet, iii. financement et iv. doctorant-e. Ce programme 911 est l'opportunité pour un encadrant de poser un sujet et apporte avec une bonne probabilité une bourse - le taux de succès est élevé. Cela ne résout pas tout, puisqu'il reste à trouver un complément de bourse et un-e doctorant-e, mais c'est déjà plus de la moitié de la solution ! Pour le-a doctorant-e l'idéal consiste à repérer un-e étudiant-e brillant-e à l'entrée du M2 et l'admettre en stage au printemps-été 2016, en ayant déjà déposé un sujet de thèse cette année (avant le 14 septembre) pour le cas où le stage se passe très bien.

Plus d'information: Dr. Minh Ha-Duong ( minh.haduong@gmail.com ), Directeur de recherche CNRS, CIRED, CNRS et CleanED, USTH

Annexe ci dessous: le texte de l'appel à sujets

jeudi 25 juin 2015

actualités du mois de juin 2015 du CleanED lab

Pour ce mois ci, le sujet des énergies propres et le développement durable s'est beaucoup abordé partout dans le monde via la COP21 - 21ème Conférence des Nations unies sur les changements climatiques. Cette conférence climatique se tiendra à Paris en Décembre dans la perspective de "limiter la hausse de température moyenne de 2°C". Vietnam n'a pas encore de publier son iNDC - Contributions nationales. L'avant projet est en phase finale de révision au niveau ministériel.

Le secteur de l'énergie était responsable de la moitié des émissions de GES Vietnam en 2010. Mais avec toutes les nouvelles centrales à charbon installées, cette émission ne va pas être améliorée. Le monde est donc curieux de voir les plans de management du Vietnam afin de gérer cette tendance, dans le sens de mettre en place une politique qui consiste à utiliser, par exemple, uniquement des technologies modernes à haute efficacité ( > 40 % ) ,de mélanger certains biomasses au charbon, de développer quelques centrales au gaz naturel. Nous espérons que la technologie de captage et le stockage du carbone permettra d'obtenir bientôt certaine traction. Beaucoup d'investisseurs attendent une augmentation des tarifs de rachat pour les énergies renouvelables. Cela nécessiterait une augmentation du prix de l'électricité, qui est actuellement l'un des plus bas dans la région. Le prix de l'énergie plus élevé donnera également une bonne motivation pour favoriser l'efficacité énergétique.

A propos de notre projet avec IT Power, Royaume-Uni consistant à organiser un cours de formation sur l'efficacité énergétique: le ministère de l'Industrie et du Commerce (MoIT) a choisi un autre consortium. Mais pour la prochaine opportunité, nous avons préparé une telle formation dont un nouvel appel à proposition de MoIT viendrai bientôt.
Afin
de formaliser le lien entre CleanED et CIRED, nous avons soumis un Programme International de Coopération Scientifique (PICS) pour le CNRS. Ceci est seulement un début et nous travaillons avec de nombreux laboratoires en France. Parlons plus tard de la formalisation de la coopération.

Le projet "FabLab Vietnam" a été acceptée. En tant que membre du consortium, nous allons fournir des travaux pratiques en technologie pour les jeunes créateurs. En attendant un espace convivial pour le future fablab USTH (nommé Français Tech Hub Direction Hanoi ou sous un autre nom), notre salle de laboratoire 610 est ouvert. Cet été, nous accueillons déjà Tung et son prototype éolien. Nous avons encore des places de travail et des outils pour les anciens/présents/futurs étudiants intéressés par à l'énergie propre et le développement durable.

Nous sommes en train de réfléchir aux nouvelles directions de recherche telles que:
- Les réseaux de production des éoliens en Asie et ailleurs, en collaboration avec un professeur de l'Université nationale du Vietnam.

- Les marchés vietnamiens pour les fourneaux améliorés ,
technologies de gazéification des balles de riz.
- La mobilité électrique au Vietnam , des sociétés à bas carbone ... ou bien d'autres sujets .

Où nous rencontrer le mois prochain?
Le séminaire scientifique conjointe entre CleanED et IES sur l'énergie et l'environnement: Sylvain Ouillon parlera sur l'eau et le changement climatique le lundi 22 , Juin . Ce sera la présentation finale de la première saison.
M. Hoang Anh va participer au Forum sur les changements climatiques à l'AIT de Bangkok sur Juillet 1er-3ème.
M. Hoang Anh et Minh participeront à la
conférence "Our common furture under climate change" à Paris, entre le 7 et le 11 mois prochain. A cette occasion , nous organisons un cocktail de bienvenue à Paris comme un événement officiel au sommet de la tour de Jussieu? RSVP via minh.haduong@gmail.com.

vendredi 22 mai 2015

PhD programme en "Technologies biologiques avancées de conversion des déchets en énergies"

Le Marie Sklodowska-Curie European Joint Doctorate (EJD) a lancé une nouvelle appel à candidature pour PhD programme dans le domaine Technologies biologiques avancées de conversion des déchets en énergies (Advanced Biological Waste-To-Energy Technologies (ABWET) en anglais). 11 sujets suivants ont été proposés:

  • Topic 1: Microbial competition control in High Rate Anaerobic Reactors fed with Industrial Wastewaters
  • Topic 2: Anaerobic digestion of industrial wastewaters at low temperatures
  • Topic 3: H2S removal from biogas using novel bioreactor configurations
  • Topic 4: Biosequestration of CO2 in algal photo-bioreactors
  • Topic 5: Biohydrogen production and VFAs recovery from complex organic substrates under hyperthermophilic conditions
  • Topic 6: Optimization and Mathematical modelling based control of trace metal dosing in anaerobic digestion of solid waste
  • Topic 7: Developing microbial monitoring methods for anaerobic biological processes
  • Topic 8: Use of effluents of anaerobic digestion and microbial fuel cells as nutrient sources for microalgal biomass production
  • Topic 9: Fate of trace metals in soils after land application of digestate
  • Topic 10: Digestate valorization for soil remediation: landfarming of hydrocarbons contaminated soils
  • Topic 11: Simultaneous hydrogen and electricity production and heat recovery from biogas using hybrid fuel cells

La date limite pour postuler est le 15 Juin 2015. Pour avoir plus de référence de chaque sujet ainsi que le formulaire de candidature, veuillez consulter le site web de ABWET Doctorate.

mercredi 20 mai 2015

Actualités du mois de mai 2015 du CleanED lab

Voici quelleques informations de ce mois ci: nous avons dédié un grand merci à notre technicien du lab M. Pham Xuan Huynh d'avoir contribuer deux publications dans les revues internationales à comité de lecture: 
  1. Sonia STITA, Marta GALERA MARTINEZ, Ange Nzihou, Patrick Sharrock, Huynh Pham Xuan et al.  Metal-doped apatitic calcium phosphates: preparation, characterization, and reactivity in the removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas phase. Composite Interfaces -Zeist-, V.S.P., 2015, pp.1-22. <10.1080/09276440.2015.1049096>
  2. Huynh Pham Xuan, Doan Pham Minh, Marta Galera Martı́nez, Ange Nzihou et Patrick Sharrock. Valorization of Calcium Carbonate-Based Solid Wastes for the Treatment of Hydrogen Sulfide from the Gas Phase. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, American Chemical Society, 2015, pp.1-27. <10.1021/acs.iecr.5b00764>

Toutes les productions scientifiques des membres du lab sont téléchargeables à partir de notre collection "Clean Energy and Sustainable Development lab" hébergée chez HAL Archives Ouvertes. 
Concernant le programme de 911 pour les PhD en France, le département "Energies Renouvelables" a reçu 9 sujets au total mais il n'y a qu'un candidat qui a passé l'entretien avec succès devant le jury, encore une fois félicitation à M. Pham Xuan Huynh. Nous espérons d'en avoir plus à la deuxième vage de recruitement qui aura lieu potentiellement à la fin de l'année. Pourtant, pour l'école doctorale USTH au Vietnam, nous avons reçu quelques dossiers candidatés. 
Notre site est désormais maintenue en trilingue Anglais, Français et Vietnamien. N'hésitez pas à nous aider à l'améliorer. Vos remarques et commentaires sont les bienvenues. 
Dernièrement, voici la liste des événements à venir du CleanED lab:

  • Nous approchons de plus en plus vers la fin de la session de printemps du série des séminaires jointes entre CleanED et IES de la VAST. Le programme de ces trois derniers (25/05, 08/06 et 22/06/2015) est consultable via ce lien
  • Trois chercheurs de notre lab vont participer à la conférence "International Forum on Green Technology et Management IFGMT2015" à Hue, de 28 à 30 juillet. 

L'éolien au Vietnam: décollage imminent ?

La puissance des éoliennes installées au Vietnam à ce jour est 52MW. C'est peu: trois sites et quelques douzaines de turbines au total. Pourtant, des signes montrent que l'éolien au Vietnam pourrait bientôt décoller.

  • Le secteur privé a déposé plus de 1000MW de projets auprès du gouvernement.
  • Deux conférences viennent de se tenir sur le sujet la semaine dernière. L'une à Ha Noi avec la coopération Allemande. Grande puissance du secteur, l'Allemagne a installé 5.279MW d'énergie éolienne l'année dernière. L'autre à Ho Chi Minh Ville avec la coopération américaine parrainée par General Electric, un grand constructeur de turbines.

Au Vietnam le tarif payé aux producteurs d'électricité éolienne est l'un des plus bas du monde, 7.8 cents par kWh. Réviser ce tarif à la hausse, poser un cadre administratif approprié et donner des garanties sur l'achat effectif de l'électricité produite, ces trois actions sont aujourd'hui nécessaires pour développer le secteur : attirer les investisseurs et les industriels, faire venir plus de grues de très grande hauteur dans le pays, installer des centres techniques pour la maintenance et ultérieurement la production, mettre en place des programmes de formation (à l'USTH bien sûr).

Le 7e Power Development Plan vise 1000MW d'éolien installé en 2020, il reste 5 ans pour faire "fois vingt". Développer des parcs rapidement, en quelques trimestres, est justement l'un des points forts de l'énergie éolienne face au charbon.

mardi 21 avril 2015

Appel à candidature du PhD programme de l'USTH

USTH lance une première campagne, cette année, de recrutement des étudiants qui s'intéressent à effectuer leur PhD en France (temps plein) sur 6 thématiques différents. Le département Énergies Renouvelables propose 10 sujets de thèse dont la liste soutenue est disponible ici.

Une de ces propositions est au sein du laboratoire LAGEP de l'Université Lyon 1 sur le sujet "Commande d’un séchoir avec gestion du couplage solaire - gaz ou l’électricité". L’objectif de cette thèse est de proposer une gestion mixte par apport d’énergie solaire couplée à d'autres comme l'énergie fossile ou électrique dans le cas des séchoirs hybrides de moyennes capacités (de 0,1 à 2 tonnes de produit frais par cycle) pour le pays en développement. Les autres énergies étant couteuses et non renouvelables et comment pourrait - on minimiser leur utilisation. La thèse doit permettre de proposer le contrôle commande des mises en fonctionnement des apports d’électricité et de gaz. Son installation et sa maintenance doivent être adaptées à des séchoirs technologiquement simples utilisant le solaire. Pour plus ample d'information, veuillez consulter la description de la thèse, disponible en Dryer_control_USTh_sujet_these_2015_French.pdf et en Dryer_control_USTh_sujet_these_2015_English.pdf.

Le programme de formation 911 en France et à l'USTH sont consultables aux websites de l'université.

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